Due to its strategic importance in terms of economic growth and development, agriculture supported by the state in every country, feeding the country's population, contributing to national income and employment, meeting the raw material needs of the industrial sector, direct and indirect contribution to exports, etc. It is an indispensable industry for many reasons.
Turkey's special geographical location affects agricultural activities in various ways. Apart from these, destructive human activities also cause agricultural differences.
Since Turkey is a middle belt country, its climate characteristics show differences. The continental climate in the Eastern Anatolia Region, the steppe climate in the Central Anatolia Region, and the Mediterranean climate and Black Sea climate, named after the region, are the natural factors that dominate the regions.
Due to the variable geographical structure, our country is a lucky country that has the capacity to produce agricultural products for 12 months of the year. This variability and diversity necessitates technologies that are combined and meaningful with more data, accurate measurement, long-term experience.
With the development of technology, the need for human labor in agriculture decreases, while states employ less people and produce more. The use of digital technologies in agriculture is expected to provide farmers with a range of benefits, including increased yields and profitability, and reduced environmental footprint, access to finance, and opportunities to enter new markets that do not require heavy infrastructure investment.
“The farmer has to follow all the variables during the production season and take the most appropriate decisions in order to make sustainable agriculture. The most important assistant in the decision phase is timely and accurate data flow. Many variable values of soil, air and plants can be measured with the Internet of Things IoT sensors to be installed in fields and gardens. Monitoring the phenological development, disease and pest status of plants and fruit trees, correct determination of irrigation intervals and durations, plant nutrient deficiencies and quantities of nutrients to be applied can be done with the help of multispectral, thermal and NDVI camera images. Analyzing the resulting big data with artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms, providing the farmer with accurate predictions and suggestions makes it easier for the farmer to make the right decision.” (Turkey agriculture development foundation)
Agricultural policies implemented in developed countries pay attention not to directly interfere with the functioning of the markets, to prioritize environmental sensitivity and to focus on measures that encourage efficiency/production increasing services. In a significant part of the developing countries, agricultural policies continue to be designed with an approach that directly intervenes in the market and limits producer choices. It is observed that these policies are maintained, albeit partially, in Turkey.
Having the third largest seed bank capacity in the world, Turkey is in a strong position in agricultural product diversity. Turkey, which both produces and exports vegetables, fruits and other commodities, has the capacity to affect the global agricultural market in many products.